Systematic Review of Smoking One Cigarette a Day and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease - Mai Tsukahara
Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)
To consider the association between one CPD and IHD, we conducted a systematic review searching for epidemiological studies that evaluated IHD risk in relation to CPD. From systematic review, no epidemiological studies were identified except for two meta-analyses or one pooled analysis. It was suggested that it would be difficult to accurately investigate the effects of a specific number of CPD in epidemiological studies because smoking habits changes in long term and day-to-day.